Discrepancy between social demands and public resources has become apparent in many countries worldwide. Institutions and industries involved in public services seek new forms of collaboration and combine all available public and private skills to circumvent problems. Advocates of public–private partnership (PPP) assess the progress as convincing. Putting the phenomena, experience, and discussion into a wider context of gaming helps to arrive at a better comprehension.
Use of the gaming perspective in PPP issues seems to enhance 'fair play'. Application of the gaming perspective is recommended in the development of project delivery techniques, education and training.